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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century and has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialised nation.

England’s terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. England’s population of 56.3 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

Capital: London
Population: 66 million

UK Countries
EnglandScotlandWalesNorthern Ireland
England Counties
BedfordshireBerkshireBristolBuckinghamshire
CambridgeshireCheshireCity of LondonCounty Durham
CornwallCumbriaDerbyshireDevon
DorsetEast Riding of YorkshireEast SussexEssex
GloucestershireGreater LondonGreater ManchesterHampshire
HertfordshireHerefordshireIsle Of WightKent
LancashireLeicestershireLincolnshireMerseyside
NorfolkNorthamptonshireNorthumberlandNorth Yorkshire
NottinghamshireOxfordshireRutlandShropshire
SomersetSouth YorkshireStaffordshireSuffolk
SurreyWest MidlandsTyne and WearWarwickshire
West SussexWest YorkshireWiltshireWorcestershire
Cities
LondonYorkBrightonPortsmouthManchesterBirmingham
NewcastleNottinghamBristol   

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UK: England – Warwick Castle

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